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The early prenatal identification of fetal gender is of great importance. Accurate prenatal identification is currently only possible through invasive procedures. The present study was conducted to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of ultrasound fetal gender identification. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on women in their 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy in Hamadan in

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Nub theory – can you predict if you’re having a boy or girl?

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The early prenatal identification of fetal gender is of great importance. Accurate prenatal identification is currently only possible through invasive procedures. The present study was conducted to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of ultrasound fetal gender identification.

The present cross-sectional study was conducted on women in their 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy in Hamadan in The significant level was 0. Of the total of women, the gender was identified as female in 32 A total of 57 male fetuses were correctly identified as boys, and 8 female fetuses were wrongly identified as boys.

As for the female fetuses, 31 were correctly identified as girls, and 1 was wrongly identified as a boy. The positive predictive value for the ultrasound imaging gender identification was The present study had a much higher gender identification accuracy compared to other studies.

The early prenatal identification of fetal gender is of great importance in the management of pregnancy in families at risk for certain inherited diseases. Accurate prenatal identification is currently only possible through invasive procedures and chorionic villus sampling CVS.

A downward tubercle indicates a female fetus and an upward tubercle a male fetus. In the early studies conducted on the use of ultrasound results for identifying the fetal gender, a male fetus was demonstrated by the presence of a scrotum and a penis, and a female fetus by the absence of these organs.

With technological advances, seeing the vulva, clitoris, and labia are taken to indicate a female fetus, whereas seeing the scrotum, penis, testicles, and raphe indicate a male fetus. Seeing the internal pelvic structure of the fetus, including the uterus and ovary, is also used to help identify the fetal gender. There is a substantial chance of getting a false-negative diagnosis if the ultrasound imaging for fetal gender identification has been performed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

The sensitivity of gender identification measures depends on the operator, machine, and habitus involved, and it increases with the radiologist's experience and if ultrasound imaging is performed using the high-resolution machine. The present study was conducted to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of ultrasound fetal gender identification in Hamadan. The present cross-sectional study was conducted progressively on women in their 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy visiting private clinics in Hamadan for ultrasound fetal gender identification in Some patients visited during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy to confirm their fetal gender and register the ultimate fetal gender identified.

In patients who did not visit during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy, the ultimate fetal gender identification was confirmed over the phone. The ultrasound imaging device used was GE Voluson E6. The descriptive analysis of the data was conducted through assessing the frequency, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the gender identified. The researchers used Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t -test with a significance level of 0.

The youngest female fetus whose gender was correctly identified was week-old, and the youngest male fetus whose gender was correctly identified was 11 weeks and 1 day old. Gestational age was significantly higher in cases where fetal gender identification could be made compared to in cases where the gender was not assigned Of the total of women who underwent ultrasound imaging in the 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy, the gender was identified as female in 32 As presented in Table 1 , in the 11 th week of pregnancy, gender identification was made in 23 In the 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy, a correct fetal gender identification was made in A total of 57 male fetuses were correctly identified as boys and 8 female fetuses were wrongly identified as boys.

As for the female fetuses, 31 were correctly identified as girls, and 1 was wrongly identified as a boy [ Table 2 ]. Binary classification tests for the ultrasound identification of male and female genders. That is to say, reporting a male gender in the ultrasound imaging performed in the 11 th or 12 th weeks of pregnancy is likely to be Overall, ultrasound gender identification showed a high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy [ Table 3 ].

Binary classification tests for ultrasonic detection of male and female sexes, respectively. When gestational age increases, the possibility of gender identification becomes larger in percentage. Operator's skills had no significant effects on gender identification in either the baby girls or boys.

The results of the present study were consistent with the results of other studies in terms of the effectiveness of an increased gestational age and the ineffectiveness of gender in the correct identification of fetal gender. A study conducted by Hsiao et al. Since, in the present study, ultrasound imaging was performed in the 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy, the overall accuracy obtained was very favorable Ultrasound accuracy was Compared to Hsiao's study, the ultrasound identification accuracy obtained in the present study was significantly higher in the 11 th week of pregnancy.

In , Whitlow and Efrat published the very first articles about fetal gender identification in the first trimester of pregnancy. The results obtained by Whitlow et al. The accuracy obtained on the 12 th week of pregnancy was Overall, various factors can affect the correct identification of fetal gender in the first trimester of pregnancy.

First, the operator's skills, which depends on his or her training; second, the ultrasound imaging device's resolution a transvaginal ultrasound provides a better resolution than a transabdominal ultrasound ; third, certain maternal factors can affect the results, such as bowel gas induced shadowing of the fetus or maternal obesity; and fourth, the fetal position in the womb, which can be in different forms, including the fetal legs being crossed, umbilical cord being between the fetus' legs, fetal hyperactivity, and an unfavorable fetal position.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Family Med Prim Care. Farideh Gharekhanloo 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.

Abstract Introduction: The early prenatal identification of fetal gender is of great importance. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on women in their 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy in Hamadan in Results: Of the total of women, the gender was identified as female in 32 Conclusion: The present study had a much higher gender identification accuracy compared to other studies. Keywords: Fetal gender, pregnancy, ultrasound.

Introduction The early prenatal identification of fetal gender is of great importance in the management of pregnancy in families at risk for certain inherited diseases. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted progressively on women in their 11 th and 12 th weeks of pregnancy visiting private clinics in Hamadan for ultrasound fetal gender identification in Table 1 Fetal gender identification in relation to gestational age.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Binary classification tests for the ultrasound identification of male and female genders. Table 3 Binary classification tests for ultrasonic detection of male and female sexes, respectively. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest.

References 1. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal sex determination: Is ultrasound still relevant? Mujezinovic F, Alfirevic Z.

Procedure-related complications of amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling: A systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. Pajkrt E, Chitty LS. Prenatal gender determination and the diagnosis of genital anomalies. BJU Int. Fetal gender assignment by first-trimester ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. The sagittal sign. An early second trimester sonographic indicator of fetal gender.

J Ultrasound Med. Stocker J, Evens L. Fetal sex determination by ultrasound. Hypospadias mimicking female genitalia on early second trimester sonographic examination. J Clin Ultrasound. Sonographic fetal sex determination. Obstet Gynecol Surv. The sonographic identification of fetal gender from 11 to 14 weeks of gestation.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. First-trimester determination of fetal gender by ultrasound. Early determination of fetal sex using transvaginal sonography: Technique and pitfalls. Support Center Support Center.

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Topics Sign in to reply. Hi all, We had our 12 week ultrasound on Monday. Has anyone found out the sex of their baby at 12 weeks and if yes were the results the same at the next scan? Tezzamumma Thursday 08 December am. We didn't want to know with our babies but, with our second, there was a still picture taken during the 12 week ultrasound that had the longest willy you have ever seen!

For centuries, people have been proclaiming that they have the ability to predict the sex of a baby while it is still developing in the womb. However, these are merely old wives tales and have no bearing in reality. Still, there has come into existence another theory in which a woman may be able to tell the sex of her baby as early as 12 weeks using an ultrasound scan.

Using this method is highly accurate. Select a Product and upload your scan. Your results include our gender prediction report and illustrative drawing to explain our findings. You may upload up to 3 scans for our experts to review. Your results will include a detailed report and drawing s illustrating both theories.

What is The ‘Nub Theory?’ – The Gender Prediction Method

Research shows no evidence for this, and similar beliefs tend to be myths. However, little scientific evidence supports these claims. In this article, we look at the research into fetal heart rate as an indicator of sex. The belief is that a heartbeat slower than beats per minute indicates a male baby, while a faster heartbeat indicates a female baby. In , one study found no significant differences between male and female fetal heart rates. In , a study looked at female and male fetal heart rates recorded during the first trimester. These researchers also found no significant difference between them. Healthcare professionals can make the best prediction during an ultrasound exam after 18 weeks.

The ultrasound identification of fetal gender at the gestational age of 11–12 weeks

Log in Sign up. Home Pregnancy Health Antenatal scans. Chrissie Hammonds Midwife sonographer. Although the main reason for having an ultrasound is not to find out whether you're having a boy or a girl, you may be able to find out via ultrasound before your baby is born.

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The Girl Ultrasound Gallery is designed for you to see what a baby girl looks like on ultrasound photos from various weeks of pregnancy. You'll notice that what you see varies a lot by the number of weeks of gestation. Each week in pregnancy can look slightly different. This is because of a variety of factors including the weight of the mother, the position of the baby, the skill of the ultrasound technician, as some examples.

How to ‘predict’ baby’s gender from an early ultrasound

The feminist in me feels guilty about this, but I never wanted to wait that long. Genetic testing through CVS remains the most accurate way to determine fetal sex in the first trimester. The angle of the genital tubercle is one important clue. The ultrasound images below illustrate this.

Forget about waiting 40 weeks to find out the sex of your baby. Practically since the beginning of time, moms-to-be and the people who love them have come up with ways to try to figure out if that bun in the oven is a girl or a boy. This semi-invasive procedure is a slam-dunk way to know your baby's gender for sure, but because of the small risk of miscarriage your doc probably won't green-light it for curiosity alone. Generations of women swear that a quick fetal heart rate — about beats per minute or above — signals girl, while below that equals boy. One theory is that baby girls are supposedly smaller, thus their hearts beat faster.

What Does a Baby Girl Look Like on Ultrasound?

I found out the gender of all three of my babies before 13 weeks. When I've been pregnant in the past, I've always had an intense need to know the gender of my baby. Being a control freak and habitual planner, I hated not knowing and I was counting down the days until the week morphology scan. I looked to my husband as we were still in the process of debating whether or not we should find out my preference , or not his. So I found out I was expecting a boy when I was just under weeks pregnant.

Nov 13, - I learned I was pregnant, I started trying to figure out if it was a boy or or girl. By weeks gestation, the angle of the penis begins to point up, towards the First-trimester determination of fetal gender by ultrasound.

But how do gender ultrasounds work, and are they always accurate? We spoke with experts to break down your most pressing questions. These waves bounce off of your little one's body to produce an image of her soft tissues, organs, and other anatomy—including reproductive parts. The image will be displayed on a monitor for you and your partner to see.

Prior to 16 weeks, the baby will be no bigger than a small chocolate bar. There will only be a slight distinction between the two genders — making an accurate prediction before 16 weeks even with our expert sonographers almost impossible. This is exactly why we at Window to the Womb only scan for gender from 16 weeks as the accuracy is In order to have the best chance of predicting gender , the baby must not be curled up, kicking or lying at an awkward angle.

Replay May 8 HDLive! Throughout history, many parents didn't want to wait until the actual birth to find out. They'd wave crystals over the mother or consult the stars. Now, of course, there are much more accurate ways to determine gender before a baby is born.

For many, waiting until the week scan feels like a lifetime The nub theory, also known as the angle of the dangle, looks at how your baby's spinal cord and genital tissues are forming at your first pregnancy scan.

Log in Sign up. Community groups. Home Pregnancy Health Antenatal scans. Becky Taylor Midwife sonographer. It'll be too early to find out the sex of your baby at your dating scan.

There are some important clues about your baby's sex in your 12 week scan photo. So you may have agreed to not find out your unborn baby's sex but, admit it, you're still a little curious, aren't you? Of course, you could always cave and ask the sonographer at your 20 week anomaly scan but even then, there is a teeny chance this could be wrong. The wealth of old wives tales about a baby's sex are also, by large, pretty ridiculous. But there is one theory which is said to be 92 per cent accurate. The theory goes you can work out if your baby is a boy or a girl by looking at the shape and size of its skull because, supposedly, this holds clues which indicate your baby's sex, Netmums reports.

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Comments: 4
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